La scoperta da Nobel

Risultati immagini per michele punturo Molti di noi hanno avuto il piacere di incontrare Michele Punturo, aretino di nascita e residente a Montagnano nel comune di Monte San Savino.

Primo Ricercatore dell’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare presso la sezione di Perugia, Punturo è membro della ‘collaborazione Virgo’ di cui fanno parte numerosi ricercatori europei e che ha realizzato l’omonimo rivelatore di onde gravitazionali. Michele Punturo collabora all’esperimento Virgo dal 1994 e per lungo tempo, in qualità di detector coordinator, si è occupato della gestione degli aggiornamenti del rilevatore.

Attualmente è responsabile dei programmi di sviluppo futuro nella ricerca sulle onde gravitazionali e dei progetti europei.

Quello che proponiamo di seguito non è un documento prodotto dal nostro relatore (ospite del Club il 23 febbraio 2017), ma un articolo reperibile nel web redato da INFN (Istituto Nucleare Fisica Nucleare) che spiega bene il valore degli studi del nostro concittadino e delle scoperte in atto.

La scoperta

Le onde gravitazionali, rivelate il 14 settembre 2015, sono state prodotte nell’ultima frazione di secondo del processo di fusione di due buchi neri in un unico buco nero ruotante più massiccio.

Questo processo era stato previsto ma mai osservato prima, e ci dà anche conferma dell’esistenza di buchi neri di massa stellare con massa superiore alle 25 masse solari.

L’osservazione delle onde gravitazionali è stata realizzata dalle Collaborazioni Scientifiche LIGO e VIRGO, grazie ai dati dei due rivelatori gemelli LIGO negli Stati Uniti, a Livingston, in Louisiana, e a Hanford, nello stato di Washington.

La scoperta delle onde gravitazionali ci apre un’inedita visione del nuovo universo: nasce, infatti, l’astronomia gravitazionale. È come se fino ad ora avessimo osservato il cosmo attraverso radiografie, mentre ora siamo in grado di fare l’ecografia del nostro universo.

A 100 anni dalla Relatività Generale

Le onde gravitazionali sono una delle conseguenze della ‘teoria della relatività generale’, pubblicata da Albert Einstein circa un secolo fa, alla fine del 1915.

Le onde gravitazionali sono perturbazioni del campo gravitazionale, “increspature” del “tessuto” dello spaziotempo, che permea tutto il nostro universo. Sono generate dai più violenti fenomeni astrofisici che avvengono nel cosmo, come la fusione di stelle, di neutroni e di buchi neri o l’esplosione di stelle massicce come supernovae. Si propagano alla velocità della luce, portando intatte fino a noi informazioni sulle loro sorgenti. Soltanto negli ultimi decenni abbiamo acquisito le tecnologie necessarie per costruire strumenti sufficientemente sensibili per la rivelazione diretta delle onde gravitazionali sulla Terra.

Gli autori della scoperta: una collaborazione globale.

A realizzare questa scoperta sono state le collaborazioni scientifiche LIGO e VIRGO. Tra esse, vi è un accordo, operativo dal 2007 ed esteso nel 2014, che prevede la condivisione e lo scambio di soluzioni tecnologiche, il coordinamento nelle campagne di raccolta dati, la condivisione e l’analisi congiunta dei dati: i due gruppi di scienziati lavorano come un’unica grande collaborazione globale.

Le collaborazioni scientifiche LIGO e VIRGO fanno capo ai laboratori statunitensi di LIGO, e allo European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), in Italia, a Càscina, vicino a Pisa, responsabile della gestione e del funzionamento dell’interferometro VIRGO, e fondato dall’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) e dal Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) francese.

Tecnologia d’avanguardia

Rivelare le onde gravitazionali è un’impresa complessa perché l’in-terazione gravitazionale è la più debole dell’universo. I fisici hanno così progettato speciali rivelatori, la cui realizzazione ha richiesto di spingere le tecnologie oltre i limiti. Si tratta degli interferometri laser, come LIGO e VIRGO, costituiti da due bracci per-pendicolari lunghi chilometri (4 km nel caso di LIGO e 3 km di VIRGO), al cui interno scorrono due fasci laser che vengono riflessi più volte da specchi per aumentarne la lunghezza del percorso. Infine, vengono ricombinati a formare una figura di interferenza.

Quando un’onda gravitazionale attraversa l’interferometro produce una variazione nella lunghezza dei bracci, uno si allunga mentre l’altro si accorcia. Queste variazioni di lunghezza, che sono molto più piccole del diametro del nucleo di un atomo, producono uno sfasamento della luce laser che viene osservato dal rivelatore. La realizzazione dell’esperimento richiede particolari condizioni: dall’ultra alto vuoto dei tubi dove corre il laser per limitare la presenza di gas residuo che perturberebbe la misura; agli specchi con irregolarità superficiali ridotte a frazioni di nanometro; al fiore all’occhiello dell’esperimento: i super attenuatori, ammortizzatori collegati in fila a formare una catena di pendoli, che costituiscono un sofisticatissimo sistema di isolamento sismico.

https://www.lns.infn.it/images/PublicEngangement/notte2017/virgo.jpg

EGO e VIRGO

L’Osservatorio Gravitazionale Europeo (EGO), fondato dall’INFN e dal CNRS francese, è responsabile per il funzionamento e la gestione di VIRGO. EGO è condotto e finanziato dall’INFN e dal CNRS, con il contributo di Nikhef (Paesi Bassi), e in collaborazione con POLGRAW – Polska

Akademia Nauk (Polonia), Wigner Institute (Ungheria) e l’Università di Valencia (Spagna).

La ‘collaborazione scientifica VIRGO’ è un gruppo internazionale di ricercatori, ingegneri e tecnici che ha lavorato alla costruzione, test e funzionamento dell’interferometro VIRGO, nonché al suo miglioramento, progetto chiamato Advanced Virgo, che ha lo scopo di studiare la fisica delle onde gravitazionali e il loro impiego in astronomia. La collaborazione conta oggi circa 250 fisici e ingegneri, di cui la metà dell’INFN, provenienti da 19 laboratori europei.

Advanced VIRGO è entrato in attività il 1 agosto 2017, unendosi ai due rivelatori LIGO nelle campagne di presa dati. Grazie ad Advanced Virgo, la sensibilità dello strumento è aumentata di dieci volte, questo significa che è in grado di osservare fino a distanze dieci volte maggiori, cioè può studiare un volume di universo mille volte più grande di quello accessibile inizialmente con VIRGO.

Advanced VIRGO è sensibile a onde gravitazionali in un vasto intervallo di frequenze: da 10 a 10000 Hertz (Hz) e a variazioni di lunghezza dei suoi bracci di 3 km dell’ordine di un miliardesimo di miliardesimo di metro, circa un millesimo del diametro di un protone.

Il ruolo dell’INFN in VIRGO

L’INFN è fra i promotori di VIRGO sin dalla sua ideazione. Il progetto è nato alla fine degli anni ’80 da un’originale e visionaria idea dell’italiano Adalberto Giazotto dell’INFN e del francese Alain Brillet del CNRS.

INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud

In VIRGO lavorano circa 100 ricercatori dell’INFN, provenienti dalle sezioni di Pisa, Firenze con il gruppo di ricerca di Urbino, Perugia, Genova, Roma Sapienza, Roma Tor Vergata, Napoli, Padova, Tifpa di Trento e Gran Sasso Science Institute dell’Aquila.

Questi gli italiani che hanno incarichi istituzionali o che hanno avuto un ruolo di rilievo nella scoperta:

  • Federico Ferrini, Direttore EGO European Gravitational Observatory
  • Fulvio Ricci, ex capo della Collaborazione Scientifica internazionale VIRGO
  • Giovanni Losurdo, Project Leader di Advanced Virgo
  • Gianluca Gemme, Chairman dell’Editorial Board di VIRGO e coordinatore nazionale INFN di
  • VIRGO
  • Pia Astone, nel team di 5 persone che hanno redatto l’articolo scientifico della scoperta
  • Cristiano Palomba, revisore dei lavori scientifici pubblicati e in preparazione
  • Viviana Fafone, revisore dei lavori scientifici pubblicati e in preparazione
  • Marica Branchesi, chairlady del gruppo Electromagnetic Follow Up dell’evento rivelato
  • Michele Punturo, coordinatore scientifico del progetto Einstein Telescope per la costruzione di un interferometro sotterraneo di grandi dimensioni.

Relazione tenuta il 23 Febbraio 2017

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