Marco Ungarelli*

Risultati immagini per ragazzi di via panisperna Il mio interesse per la scienza ebbe origine con il corso di fisica e il conseguente esame che sostenni con il mio indimenticabile Professore Edoardo Amaldi (al centro nella foto sopra) che faceva parte dei ragazzi di Via Panisperna (irripetibile gruppo di geni che operavano al laboratorio di fisica dell’Università di Roma), e che aveva l’incredibile capacità di spiegare con semplicità concetti molto complessi, il che indica una grande padronanza della materia. Nel mio piccolo questa sera cercherò di imitarlo e tenterò quindi di presentarvi una materia piuttosto complessa in modo semplice e assolutamente intellegibile.

Vorrei anzitutto illustrarvi la composizione della “torta” dell’energia elettrica nel mondo (grafico sotto), suddivisa nei suoi componenti più rilevanti.

Carbone 40%, gas 20%, idroelettrica 16%, nucleare 15%, petrolio 6%, altre 3%, per un totale del 100%.

https://panthersgetnuclear.wikispaces.com/file/view/World_Electiricty_Generation(1).png/181552343/World_Electiricty_Generation(1).png

Le previsioni sono per un graduale aumento della produzione di energia nucleare a scapito del carbone, attualmente il più inquinante dei combustibili. Le percentuali sopra indicate sono medie globali, ma il mix è completamente diverso da paese a paese. In Francia quasi l’80% dell’energia prodotta è nucleare, mentre in Italia è zero ed in compenso fotovoltaico ed eolica sfiorano il 10%, anche perché le finanziamo noi contribuenti con le nostre tasse e a nostra insaputa e approvazione. Per vostra informazione sappiate che ci sono 440 centrali nucleari operative nel mondo, altre 59 in costruzione e 168 in progettazione (allegato 3) e quindi il 15% sopra indicato aumenterà notevolmente. Sperabilmente a discapito del carbone.

http://www.tesinagerardot.altervista.org/nucleare2.gif

Per produrre energia nucleare (figura sopra) occorrono due tipi di “combustibile”, leggermente diversi fra di loro: l’ U235 e l’ U238. I numeri associati alla lettera U indicano il numero totale di Protoni e Neutroni contenuti all’interno del nucleo dei due tipi (isotopi) di Uranio e precisamente :

235 = 92 protoni + 143 neutroni : combustibile Fissile

238 = 92 protoni + 146 neutroni : combustibile Fertile

Il nucleo è una sferettina estremamente densa e pesante, che contiene la quasi totalità della massa dell’atomo, è posta al centro dell’atomo.

Il nucleo è tenuto insieme dalla forza più grande esistente in natura, la forza nucleare forte, senza la quale esploderebbe in quanto costituito da particelle con la stessa carica elettrica positiva (i protoni) che si respingono a vicenda, come potete verificare con un comune magnete.

Però ci sono anche 143 e rispettivamente 146 neutroni, assolutamente neutri. Più alto è il numero di neutroni, più il nucleo è instabile, in quanto i neutroni in eccesso tendono ad uscire,.

E’ per questo che l’U238 emette continuamente neutroni e l’altro no (o molto meno) e da qui deriva il nome di “Fertile” giacché i neutroni emessi colpiscono e fertilizzano l’U235 che si spacca in due atomi più leggeri, il Bario e il Krypton ed in più emette dai 2 ai 3 neutroni. I due neutroni emessi dalla fissione dell’U235, a loro volta spaccano due atomi di U235 (figura a lato) e quindi verranno emessi 4 neutroni e poi 8 quindi 16, in rapidissima successione.

A questo punto avviene il miracolo previsto da Einstein. La massa totale dei due atomi più leggeri insieme ai due neutroni risultanti dalla fissione, è inferiore a quella dell’atomo originale di U235. La differenza si trasforma in energia termica secondo la nota formula di Einstein E=MC2 ove C è la velocità della luce, 300.000.000 Metri/sec da elevare al quadrato. Una cifra enorme (900 milioni di miliardi), come quindi è enorme la quantità di energia prodotta dal reattore.

Però c’è un problema: l’uranio disponibile in natura è composto al 99,3% di U238 fertile e solo allo 0,7% di U235 fissile. E quindi ci troviamo al cospetto di tantissimi uomini (99,3%) tutti fertili (U238), ma con pochissime donne (0,7%) da fertilizzare (U235). Occorre dunque aumentare la presenza di donne fertili e questo si ottiene incrementando la percentuale di U235 presente nell’uranio naturale, portandolo a un livello di circa il 4% attraverso processi industriali molto complessi (per fortuna) di arricchimento.

Questo è il tipo di combustibile usato in una centrale nucleare. In una bomba atomica la percentuale di U235 fissile deve arrivare all’80%, altrimenti non è possibile l’esplosione della bomba.

E ciò dimostra che una esplosione nucleare (bomba atomica) non si può verificare in alcun modo e circostanza in una centrale nucleare. Cernobyl e Fukushima furono causate da esplosioni termiche convenzionali dovute alla produzione di idrogeno venuto a contatto con l’atmosfera.

Abbiamo appena visto come agisce il combustibile (Uranio) di una centrale nucleare. Vediamo ora come funziona il suo motore, situato all’interno del nocciolo del reattore (ho preso come esempio “il motore” della centrale nucleare di Latina). Il cosiddetto nocciolo è costituito da un grande contenitore in acciaio, all’interno del quale viene posizionato un fitto reticolo di grafite, chiamato Moderatore. All’interno di questo reticolo vengono posizionate le cartucce di uranio arricchito, contenute in una camicia composta da una leggerissima lega di zirconio, di cui vedremo la funzione fra un momento. Il moderatore in grafite è una sostanza che ha il compito di rallentare i neutroni veloci emessi naturalmente dall’uranio fertile. Ma in questo caso, come in altri tentativi di fertilizzazione di altra natura, l’eccessiva velocità non va bene. La probabilità del neutrone di centrare il bersaglio diminuisce. Ma se il neutrone viene rallentato dal moderatore attraverso una serie di urti e rimbalzi, aumenta la probabilità che colpisca l’U235 fertile, lo spacchi e produca una grande energia.

Nel nocciolo del reattore e precisamente nei canali presenti all’interno del reticolo di grafite, è inoltre immersa una fitta serie di barre di Boro che ha la proprietà di assorbire i neutroni emessi dall’U238. Le barre sono totalmente inserite nel nocciolo stesso quando non si vuole produrre elettricità e vengono gradualmente estratte quando si ha bisogno di energia. Paragonando il nocciolo del reattore al motore di un’automobile, si può dire che il moderatore ha, in certo qual modo, la funzione del freno, mentre le barre di boro hanno quella dell’acceleratore.

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/1d/70/83/1d70835eebe5c344b3d10f04a827282a.jpg

IL ciclo produttivo

Vi illustro quello del reattore nucleare di Latina, ove ho lavorato per quasi tre anni. I primi 7 mesi mi sono serviti per prendere un master in ingegneria nucleare in Inghilterra, indispensabile per poter terminare la costruzione della centrale nucleare, collaudare i vari impianti, caricare nel nocciolo le barre di uranio arricchito e infine avviare la centrale e iniziare a produrre energia elettrica. La mattina andavo in aula ove mi veniva insegnata la teoria, il pomeriggio andavo a controllarne l’applicazione pratica in centrale, affiancato a un supervisore, che aveva l’incarico di seguire la mia formazione operativa. E’ stato il primo esempio da me sperimentato di collaborazione scuola/industria, a tutt’oggi cosi scarsamente praticato in Italia..

Lo studio e l’avviamento della centrale di Latina per me è stata un’esperienza esaltante, irripetibile. Latina ha prodotto energia ininterrottamente per 25 anni, senza alcun serio problema di esercizio, sino al 1987 quando fu fermata senza alcun motivo, salvo l’onda emozionale causata da Cernobyl e la grave mancanza di informazione che ne seguì. Latina per me è stata la base http://www.archiviofotograficolatina.it/wp-content/uploads/image167.jpg di partenza del mio futuro professionale, che proseguì a seguito della nazionalizzazione di tutta l’energia elettrica prodotta in Italia, voluta da Amintore Fanfani e che mi spinse a lasciare l’appena creato ENEL e iniziare il mio percorso con le multinazionali americane, ma questa è un’altra storia, altrettanto entusiasmante e piena di stupendi ricordi.

Come vedete nello schema precedente, si può osservare il nocciolo del reattore, il circuito di raffreddamento a CO2, il circuito di produzione del vapore, la sala turbine.

Il ciclo produttivo è il seguente :

• Vengono estratte lentamente le barre di Boro che servono ad assorbire i neutroni emessi dall’U238 (fertilizzante) e quindi tali neutroni hanno ora la possibilità di fertilizzare l’U235 e spaccarlo.

• I neutroni vengono rallentati dal moderatore (grafite), senza il quale scapperebbero dal nocciolo con una bassa percentuale che colpisce l’uranio fissile.

• Si innesca quindi una reazione a catena che produce una quantità di calore crescente con la graduale estrazione delle barre di Boro.

• Il calore così generato viene smaltito da un forte flusso di gas, CO2, immesso a pressione nel cuore del reattore, utilizzando potenti ventilatori chiamati Soffianti. Le camice di protezione delle barre di uranio sono in lega di zirconio, metallo molto leggero, ad alta conducibilità termica, che facilita quindi la rimozione del calore da parte della CO2.

La CO2, così riscaldata a una temperatura di circa 400 gradi, a sua volta cede il calore assorbito a un circuito chiuso ad acqua (un semplice scambiatore di calore), che viene gradualmente trasformata in vapore.

Il vapore ad alta pressione viene infine convogliato nelle turbine a vapore che girando producono energia elettrica attraverso i generatori ad esse connesse.

INCIDENTI di CHERNOBYL e FUKUSHIMA

L’incidente di Chernobyl oltre ad aver causato una grande sciagura umana, ha portato anche un danno enorme al mondo occidentale.

Anzitutto va detto che l’incidente è stato causato da una serie di manovre errate ordinate dal direttore della centrale, personaggio di nomina politica da parte del partito comunista sovietico, che aveva conseguito un diploma in energia nucleare per corrispondenza. Inoltre il reattore di Cernobyl (della tipologia PWR : Pressurized Water Reactor), intrinsecamente più pericoloso di quello di Latina, era progettato per produrre anche uranio arricchito all’80% necessario per la realizzazione di testate nucleari. Aveva inoltre diversi difetti di progettazione ed era privo di varie strutture di sicurezza già presenti allora a Latina.

Il dramma di Chernobyl fu causato dal mancato funzionamento dell’impianto di raffreddamento danneggiatosi a causa di una serie di istruzioni errate del direttore di centrale, che provocò un forte aumento delle temperature nel reattore e la conseguente evaporazione dell’acqua ivi presente. Il vapore acqueo ad alta temperatura ha la proprietà di reagire con lo zinco che costituisce le camice di contenimento delle cartucce di uranio e tale reazione produce idrogeno puro, che a contatto con l’atmosfera genera una esplosione termica, con conseguente espulsione in atmosfera di scorie nucleari altamente radioattive.

Si è trattato di un crimine contro l’umanità causato dall’incompetenza delle strutture di comando sovietiche, la cui onda emotiva causò la chiusura di tutte le centrali nucleari italiane, che allora era il secondo produttore europeo di energia nucleare (il primo era l’Inghilterra), con un enorme danno alla nostra economia. E ora siamo l’unico paese europeo con zero produzione nucleare. E pensare che se avessimo tenuto in funzione le nostre tre centrali nucleari, avremmo risparmiato l’equivalente necessario a costruire una nuova centrale nucleare ogni anno. Ma questo è eresia solo a pensarlo. Io purtroppo lo penso, ma nel mondo non sono il solo.

Fukushima è un’altra storia.

Un terremoto di magnitudo 9, migliaia di volte più potente di quello dell’Aquila e di Amatrice, dell’incredibile durata di 300 secondi, fu causato dalla rottura della grande faglia detta Pacific Ocean Plate. Questo ha causato uno tsunami di dimensioni devastanti, con onde alte oltre 10 metri e con barriere di protezione anti tsunami alte solo 5 metri. Erano 1142 anni che in Giappone non si verificava un evento di questo genere. Le centrali di Fukushima sono di prima generazione e nonostante questo il recente terremoto dello scorso novembre (scala 7,3), ben più potente di quello dell’Aquila e di Amatrice, non ha causato alcun inconveniente ai reattori in funzione, ma solo un comprensibile e grande spavento. Nelle più moderne di terza generazione l’incidente (storicamente rarissimo) non avrebbe causato alcuna conseguenza significativa in quanto il calore prodotto dal reattore viene automaticamente rimosso da un sistema di raffreddamento a convezione naturale.

Meccanica dell’esplosione di Fukushima. Quando si spegne un reattore a fissione (introducendo le barre di boro ad esempio), il nucleo del reattore continua a produrre circa il 6% del calore a regime di piena potenza, a causa del decadimento delle scorie radioattive. Lo tsunami aveva danneggiato il sistema di raffreddamento attivo e il calore della reazione di decadimento, non smaltito, ha provocato la distruzione della camicia metallica di zirconio che conteneva le barre di uranio. Il vapore surriscaldato generato dall’acqua di raffreddamento, reagì chimicamente con le camicie metalliche in lega di zirconio, producendo ingenti quantità di idrogeno che a contatto con l’ossigeno dell’atmosfera causarono l’esplosione e lo spargimento delle scorie radioattive.

Non tutti sono al corrente, stranamente, che lo Tsunami di Fukushima ha inoltre provocato il crollo di una diga su un fiume non lontano, con il conseguente crollo di circa 2.000 case e non so quanti morti, a dimostrazione che persino l’energia idroelettrica non dà scampo di fronte e sciagure naturali di quella entità.

STOCCAGGIO SCORIE RADIOATTIVE

La moderna tecnologia ha già da tempo risolto il problema dello stoccaggio delle scorie radioattive. Da notare che il volume di scorie radioattive prodotte da una centrale nucleare della potenza di 1GW è pari a circa 1 metro cubo per anno. Una volta estratte dal nocciolo del reattore le cartucce di uranio usate, queste vengono immerse per circa 10/30 anni in una piscina situata nel sito del reattore a qualche metro di profondità, per consentire alle barre stesse (scorie radioattive) di raffreddarsi e di ridurre il loro livello di radioattività a breve termine. Trascorso tale periodo di raffreddamento le scorie vengono compresse e sottoposte a un processo di vetrificazione. In altre parole macinate e immerse nel vetro fuso, raffreddate e ridotte a un cubo di vetro e poi rinchiuse in un contenitore di cemento. Da notare che il vetro è inattaccabile da qualsiasi agente corrosivo. Al termine di questo processo di compattazione, le scorie vetrificate e incementate vengono interrate in un deposito sotterraneo ad alto contenuto di salgemma, che indica la totale assenza di vene d’acqua. In Italia questo procedimento non è stato nemmeno preso in considerazione, nonostante l’identificazione di vari siti rispondenti alle caratteristiche sopra indicate, a causa della dura resistenza di autorità locali, ambientalisti e degli stessi cittadini, disinformati sull’assenza di rischi del processo sopra indicato. Nella maggioranza dei casi però si sono conservate le scorie in piscina, per poi cederle a paesi in grado di trattarle (reprocessing) per ricavarne plutonio e uranio arricchito, da utilizzare nei reattori di generazione recente.

C’è da dire che con circa 440 reattori nucleari presenti nel mondo, non si è mai avuto alcun serio inconveniente o incidente attribuibile alle scorie nucleari.

SICUREZZA E DIFFUSIONE DEI REATTORI NEL MONDO

Spero di aver ragionevolmente illustrato da quale fenomeno fisico nasce l’energia prodotta da un reattore nucleare, il suo ciclo produttivo e come è stato risolto il problema della gestione delle scorie nucleari, con l’eccezione di quelli che non vogliono risolverlo. Vorrei anche aggiungere che nei reattori nucleari di ultima generazione, incidenti del tipo di quello di Fukushima non sarebbero stati possibili in quanto in possesso delle seguenti caratteristiche:

Anche in caso di blocco totale del sistema di raffreddamento, questo è comunque garantito da sistemi di sicurezza passiva (a prova di errore umano) consistenti in tunnel di raffreddamento per convezione naturale.

Il reattore è incapsulato in una robusta struttura in cemento armato, circondata da alti e spessi muri, anche essi in cemento armato.

In conclusione ritengo di poter affermare che oggi l’energia nucleare è la fonte energetica più sicura e meno inquinante del mondo e, mediamente, è competitiva con altre forme di energia e sarà sempre più così. Ad esempio le centrali di quarta generazione, in via di avanzata progettazione, elimineranno quasi totalmente il problema delle scorie radioattive, in quanto esse verranno riutilizzate in ciclo continuo per produrre energia. Si calcola che le scorie radioattive presenti attualmente nel mondo siano sufficienti a soddisfare il fabbisogno di energia elettrica del pianeta per i prossimi 72 anni.

La Cina (ma anche l’India), ad esempio, ha deciso un massiccio intervento nella produzione dell’energia nucleare ed è per questo che ha siglato l’accordo per un sostanziale riduzione del suo drammatico livello di inquinamento, che sembra causi circa un milione di morti l’anno. Il loro piano a lungo termine è di ridurre notevolmente la produzione di energia tramite carbone (che è terribilmente inquinante) e sostituirla con il nucleare. Così facendo si realizzerebbe inoltre una forte riduzione delle emissioni di CO2 che molti considerano come il gas serra responsabile del riscaldamento globale. Io non ne sono affatto convinto, ma questo è un altro capitolo della produzione di energia. Tutto ciò dovrebbe avvenire gradualmente e l’obiettivo pienamente raggiunto entro il 2050. Stranamente i cinesi hanno deciso di non ricoprire il loro territorio di pannelli solari o di pale eoliche, però sono i maggiori produttori mondiali di pannelli solari, che esportano in quantità assai elevate. Un progetto analogo è in corso di attuazione da parte dell’India.

Si prevede che entro il 2050 la produzione di energia nucleare nel mondo costituirà circa il 25% del totale, il che per molti paesi rappresenterà una totale indipendenza dal petrolio dei paesi arabi.Si realizzerà così la profezia che fu fatta negli anni 50 dal ministro dell’energia dell’Arabia Saudita che, di fronte alle solite profezie catastrofiche di un rapido esaurimento dei pozzi di petrolio, affermò : Come l’età della pietra non finì per mancanza di pietre, così l’età del petrolio non terminerà per mancanza di petrolio. Vi evidenzio infine che l’Italia non è presente in alcun modo o forma nel quadro energetico nucleare mondiale. Per i sostenitori della decrescita felice è un bene, per me una sciagura. Stranamente sono previste nuove centrali persino in Giappone (Fukushima) e addirittura in Ucraina (Cernobyl).

Relazione tenuta il 26 gennaio 2017

* Marco-Ungarelli Past President 2008-‘09
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