Gli anni ‘50: Dalla ricostruzione al boom economico

Mauro Sasdelli *

Gli anni ‘50 sono stati la grande epopea di una Italia povera e arretrata che in poco tempo, grazie alla sua genialit272à, inventiva e audacia, si trasforma in un paese moderno e benestante. Sono gli anni della voglia di vivere, dell’ottimismo, della diffusione del benessere; sono gli anni della nascita dell’Italia moderna.

Il quadro politico

A livello internazionale gli anni ‘50 sono dominati dalla guerra fredda e dalla paura delle bombe atomiche. Il mondo è diviso in due, dominato da 2 superpotenze: gli Usa e l’URSS. I paesi alleati agli USA sono inquadrati nella NATO, quelli con l’URSS nel patto di Varsavia. Li divide una linea immaginaria, la ‘cortina di ferro’. I due blocchi si fronteggiano, si stuzzicano, si spiano, studiano armi sempre più potenti e distruttive; sarebbe bastato un gesto sconsiderato di qualsiasi generale, come descritto nel film “Il dottor Stranamore“ di Stanley Kubrik, per ridurre il mondo in briciole. Per fortuna i governanti sono consci dei rischi di una guerra nucleare e non utilizzarono mai le bombe atomiche.

Negli USA il presidente è Harry Truman sostituito dal generale Eisenhower nel ‘52, poi riconfermato nel ‘56. Nell’Unione Sovietica governa con il pugno di ferro Stalin che muore nel ‘53, rimpianto da tutti i comunisti del mondo. Il suo posto viene preso da Kruscev, che nel ‘56 denuncia i crimini di Stalin accusato di aver ucciso milioni di russi. L’Ungheria si illude di potersi liberare del giogo sovietico e si ribella, ma la rivolta viene soffocata nel sangue dall’armata russa e sui paesi dell’Est torna il silenzio. Nel ‘50 il papa è Pio XII, Eugenio Pacelli che muore nel ’58; gli subentra Angelo Roncalli con il nome di Giovanni XXIII.

In Italia il presidente della Repubblica è il liberale Luigi Einaudi e dal ‘54 Giovanni Gronchi, esponente della sinistra DC.

Il partito dominante è la Democrazia Cristiana che nel ‘48 aveva vinto le elezioni, battendo nettamente l’agguerrita coalizione delle sinistre. Il suo esponente più rappresentativo è Alcide De Gasperi che presiede tutti i governi fino al ‘53, tutti di coalizione con i repubblicani, i liberali e i socialdemocratici. De Gasperi è stato un ottimo politico, dotato di grande senso dello stato, difensore accorato della democrazia e fervido anticomunista.

Con De Gasperi l’Italia scelse il campo occidentale, sotto l’ombrello degli americani. Un contributo determinante al rafforzamento di questa scelta, venne dal piano Marshall, varato dagli Americani nel ‘48 per aiutare i paesi europei a sviluppare l’economia. Per l’Italia furono aiuti determinanti: il nostro paese, proprio per il suo interesse strategico, ricevette più di 2 miliardi di dollari che servirono a ricostruire le fabbriche, le strade e le ferrovie.

Un grande merito di De Gasperi fu quello di aprire il paese alle relazioni internazionali: nel ’49 l’Italia venne ammessa nella NATO, alleanza militare dei paesi occidentali in funzione antisovietica.

Nel ‘51 De Gasperi fu uno dei promotori della creazione della CECA (comunità europea carbone a acciaio). Nel ‘55 riuscì a far ammettere l’Italia all’ONU. Nel ‘57 fu determinante per la nascita della CEE (comunità economica europea).

I governi De Gasperi vararono importanti riforme: il piano casa ideato dal ministro del lavoro Fanfani, che realizzò 350.000 vani che risolse il problema degli sfollati; la riforma agraria che, con l’esproprio di terre incolte, distribuì 100.000 lotti attrezzati ai contadini del sud Italia e in Maremma; la riforma fiscale detta “legge Vanoni” (per la prima volta gli italiani furono chiamati a dichiarare i propri redditi al fisco); la Cassa per il mezzogiorno per finanziare opere di pubblica utilità e favorire l’industrializzazione del sud; l’istituzione dell’ENI, guidata da Enrico Mattei, per la ricerca di fonti energetiche, soprattutto con lo sviluppo di accordi internazionali.

Nel ‘54 venne firmato il trattato di pace con la Jugoslavia che restituì Trieste all’Italia in cambio della dolorosa rinuncia a Venezia Giulia e Istria.

Dopo la morte di De Gasperi, l’aretino Amintore Fanfani prese in mano le redini del paese. Fanfani voleva coinvolgere nel governo i socialisti di Nenni, ma l’opposizione all’interno della DC, organizzata dalla corrente dei dorotei (Segni, Rumor, Colombo, Moro), fu così forte che nel ’59 costrinse Fanfani a dimettersi da Presidente del Consiglio e da Segretario del partito. Segretario venne nominato Aldo Moro.

Flag_of_NATO_svg
Bandiera della NATO
Emblema del Patto di Varsavia

 

Emblema Patto Varsaviat

Hary Truman
Harry Truman
Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
Josif Stalin
Josif Stalin
Flag_of_the_United_Nations_svg
Emblema dell’ONU
Amintore_Fanfani_(1983)
Amintore Fanfani
piano-Casa-Fanfani Mattei
Enrico Mattei
Costruzioni INA-Casa (piano casa)
De Gasperi
Alcide De Gasperi
Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
LuigiEinaudi

Luigi Einaudi

Piano Marshall pia‫no Marshall 2

Figli di Stalin o di Maria

La contrapposizione tra Chiesa e Partito Comunista è feroce, è una battaglia senza esclusione di colpi. Pio XII vede il peggior nemico della Chiesa nel comunismo e lancia il proclama “stare con Cristo o contro Cristo, o figli di Stalin o di Maria”. Teme l’arrivo dei cosacchi a San Pietro. Nel ‘49 il Vaticano scomunica i comunisti.

La Chiesa coagula le forze moderate nella DC, facendo appello ai valori tradizionali: fede, famiglia, proprietà, patria. Maria Goretti (a destra, quella che si ritiene sia l’unica foto della giovane), che si oppose ad un tentativo di stupro con la morte, è proposta come esempio di virtù femminile, simbolo della chiesa minacciata dal materialismo.

Il partito comunista raccoglie ampi consensi, è ben organizzato e forte economicamente grazie alle sovvenzioni da parte dell’URSS. Il comunismo è una fede. Il partito detta la linea politica, lo stile di vita, il pensiero, è totalizzante, chiede e ottiene l’obbedienza degli iscritti.

santa-maria-goretti-latina-

Il suo leader è Palmiro Togliatti: abile tattico, propugna la legalità, difende la democrazia, la modernità e la cultura, presenta il partito come difensore della gente contro i soprusi e gli scandali del potere. In questo modo attrae i borghesi progressisti e gli intellettuali.


I principali fatti di cronaca e di sport

1950

La Corea del Nord comunista, con l’appoggio della Cina, invade la Corea del Sud. Gli Sati Uniti intervengono e inizia la guerra che terminerà nel ‘53 con un armistizio che lascia i due paesi divisi da una linea di demarcazione lungo il 38° parallelo, praticamente la situazione prima della guerra (nella foto sotto un’immagine del conflitto).

Viene ucciso in Sicilia il bandito Giuliano. La sua morte è rivendicata dai carabinieri, ma poi si saprà che è stato ucciso dal cugino Gaspare Pisciotta con il sospetto della complicità dei servizi segreti americani e della mafia. Pisciotta morirà in prigione due anni dopo avvelenato da un caffè alla stricnina.

Campionato mondiale di calcio in Brasile: l’Italia è eliminata nel girone di qualificazione. Vince in maniera inaspettata l’Uruguay e in Brasile viene decretato il lutto nazionale

FOTO-GUERRA-COREA-2-PARTE

1951

Alluvione del Polesine con centinaia di morti e 200.000 senza tetto

1952

Ricominciano le Olimpiadi che si svolgono a Helsinki. Il campione simbolo di quei giochi è il cecoslovacco Emil Zatopek, detto l’uomo cavallo, che vince i 5000 m, i 10.000 m e la maratona. L’Italia vince 8 medaglie d’oro, 9 d’argento e 4 di bronzo. Ori con Giuseppe Dordoni (marcia 50 km), Edoardo Mangiarotti (fioretto), Irene Camber (fioretto), Straulino e Rode (vela), Enzo Sacchi (ciclismo velocità), Aureliano Bolognesi (pugilato pesi leggeri), nell’inseguimento a squadre di ciclismo e nella spada a squadre maschile.

Fausto Coppi vince Giro d’Italia e Tour de France

Alluvione Polesine

L’alluvione nel Polesine

zATOPEKEmil Zatopek
FDordoni oro a Helsinki

Giuseppe Dordoni

Fausto_Coppi

Zeno Colò

Fausto Coppi

1953

In USA, in un clima di caccia alle streghe, i coniugi Rosenberg, accusati di spionaggio a favore dell’Unione Sovietica, vengono condannati a morte.

I francesi, sconfitti dai vietcong a Dien Bien Phu nel Vietnam, abbandonano l’Indocina.

Fausto Coppi vince il campionato del mondo di ciclismo a Lugano.

Ad Oslo si tengono le Olimpiadi invernali: Zeno Colò si aggiudica la medaglia d’oro nella discesa libera.

julius-ed-ethel-rosenberg Julius ed Ethel Rosenberg

Interminabile fila di prigionieri

francesi sconfitti a Dien Bien Phu

dien-bien-phu-battle-pictures-images-photos-011

1954

Viene firmato un trattato con la Jugoslavia per la definizione dei confini: Trieste ritorna all’Italia in cambio della cessione alla Iugoslavia della zona B (l’entroterra di Trieste), dell’Istria e della Dalmazia.

In USA J.E. Salk mette a punto il vaccino iniettabile contro la Poliomielite.

Giulia Occhini, amante di Coppi, viene arrestata per adulterio.

Campionato del mondo di calcio in Svizzera: l’Italia viene eliminata negli ottavi. Vince la Germania Ovest.

Gli alpinisti Achille Compagnoni e Gino Lacedelli conquistano la cima del K2 nell’Himalaya.

Trieste italianajpg Lacedelli e Compagnoni suk K2
Compagnoni e Lacedelli sul K2Trieste riannessa all’Italia

1955

Muore a Monza il campione del mondo di automobilismo Alberto Ascari.

1956

Affonda il transatlantico italiano Andrea Doria speronato dalla nave svedese Stockholm. Muoiono 55 persone.

Israele, Francia e Gran Bretagna attaccano l’Egitto guidato dal colonnello Nasser che aveva nazionalizzato il canale di Suez. Interviene l’ONU con l’appoggio di Stati Uniti e Urss che costringono gli aggressori a ritirarsi. A Marcinelle in Belgio muoiono in una miniera 139 minatori italiani.

Olimpiadi di Melbourne. LItalia vince 8 ori (spada, fioretto, ciclismo, tiro e canottaggio), 8 argenti e 9 bronzi. Negli USA entrano in commercio il vaccino antipolio per via orale di Albert Sabin e la pillola anticoncezionale di Gregory Pincus (a destra).

L’Unione Sovietica invade l’Ungheria.

Pillola di Pincus
il-naufragio-dell-andrea-doria

L’Andrea Doria sta affondando

La Stockholm
La Stockholm che speronò l’Andrea Doria
Marcinelle

 

Tanks_Destroyed_Sinai

Carri distrutti nel Sinai durante la Guerra

per la liberazione del Canale di Suez

Nikita Kruscev
Nikita Kruscev
Invasione Ungheria
Invasione dell’Ungheria

1957

L’URSS mette in orbita il primo satellite artificiale della storia, lo Sputnik I e dopo un mese lo Sputnik II con la cagnetta Laika che rimarrà in orbita 160 giorni. Gli americani vanno in paranoia.

Alla Mille Miglia la Ferrari di Alfonso de Portago provoca 11 morti e la corsa verrà abolita.

sputnik 2 con Laika

Sputnik 2° con Laika


Prima pagina della D.d.C. sull’incidente

causato da Alfonso De Portago

De Portago

1958

Fidel Castro e ‘Che’ Guevara sbarcano a Cuba e iniziano la guerriglia contro il dittatore Battista che terminerà nel ‘59 con la presa del potere dei castristi.

Esplode il caso Giuffrè. Il finanziere, soprannominato “il banchiere di Dio”, tramite le parrocchie aveva rastrellato milioni di lire promettendo interessi stratosferici. Il suo fallimento getta sul lastrico migliaia di piccoli risparmiatori.

Efferato delitto a Milano: Maria Martirano viene uccisa da un sicario pagato dal marito Giovanni Fenaroli.

Ercole Baldini vince il campionato del mondo di ciclismo a Reims.

Che Guevara e Fidel Castro

Che Guevara e Fidel Castro

Giovanbattista Giuffrè

Giovanbattista Giuffrè

Baldini
Ercole Baldini all’ultimo giro a Reims
Papa Roncalli

1959

Giovanni XXIII indìce il concilio Vaticano II per favorire il dialogo con le altre religioni.

Tre premi Nobel a italiani: Daniel Bovet per la Medicina, Salvatore Quasimodo per la letteratura e Emilio Segrè per la fisica.

Scandalo nella Roma bene: la ballerina Aïché Nana si spoglia nel ristorante Rugantino e viene arrestata.

Quasimodo Aiché-Nana
Aïché Nana: spogliarello al Rugantino

Salvatore Quasimodo alla cerimonia del Premio Nobel

Il quadro socio-economico

I primi anni 50

La ricostruzione

I primi anni ‘50 sono gli anni della ricostruzione. L’Italia è ancora un paese povero e disastrato. I disoccupati sono tanti. Le famiglie si arrangiano: i bisogni primari sono il lavoro, il vitto e la casa. Nel ‘50 ci sono milioni di persone che vivono in baracche, grotte e case senza servizi igienici.

Mancano corrente elettrica, acqua corrente e fognature. Il livello dei consumi è basso: il 35% degli italiani non mangia mai carne, il 25% una volta la settimana. Lo stipendio medio è di 40.000 £ al mese. Il caffè al bar costa 50 £, il giornale 25 £, il cinema 50-100 £, un litro di benzina 130 £, un chilo di pane 150 £. I mezzi di trasporto sono il barroccio e la bicicletta. I benestanti hanno lo scooter, Vespa o Lambretta. Le auto sono cose da ricchi. In pochi anni vengono costruiti milioni di vani, grazie al piano casa di Fanfani, ma anche agli speculatori, i cosiddetti “palazzinari” che fanno affari d’oro. Nascono così quartieri periferici anonimi, squallidi, senza regole.

Morale e sesso

La società dei primi anni ‘50 è bigotta, tradizionalista, ancora pre-consu-mista. La famiglia ha la priorità sulla società civile. I padri e i fratelli difendono l’onore delle ragazze a suon di ceffoni, proibizioni violente, a difesa della morale e della tradizione.

Il sesso è tabù. La regola è: il sesso si fa, ma non si dice. Proprio perché è un frutto proibito, è un pensiero fisso, martellante, ossessivo.

L’educazione sessuale si basa sul sentito dire e per gli uomini, su aneddoti di prestazioni miracolose, quasi sempre inventate.

L’aspirazione dei maschi è di incontrare una ragazza vergine che diventi una buona moglie e una brava madre, quella delle femmine è di incontrare un marito buono e onesto. Ai fidanzati il prete consiglia: visite brevi, utili e rare. Le ragazze che hanno ceduto alle pulsioni sessuali rischiano di non arrivare al matrimonio perché “se ha ceduto una volta, cederà ancora e quindi è poco seria”. Esiste una doppia morale, quella per gli uomini e quella per le donne. Per gli uomini un po’ di esperienza non guasta. La virilità è un dovere, il gallismo un tratto del carattere nazionale. Se un uomo sposato ha un’amante si dice che è un donnaiolo. Quando una donna sposata ha un amante si dice che è una puttana. La legge stabilisce che lei commette un reato, lui no. E poi dopo i 18 anni, gli uomini possono andare nei bordelli o case di tolleranza, dove esperte signorine iniziano i giovani al sesso, dove i maschi, belli o brutti, nobili o popolani, purché paganti, possono sfogare i loro istinti e assaporare i piaceri del peccato.

Wilma Montesi

Wilma Montesi

Casa-di-tolleranza Casa di tolleranza

Un fatto di cronaca rivela che sotto la patina del perbenismo, si celano stili di vita poco edificanti: nel 1953 su una spiaggia vicino a Roma viene trovato il cadavere di una giovane donna, Wilma Montesi. Per la polizia è morta per un malore, dopo aver messo i piedi in acqua. Ma una testimone parla di festini a luci rosse con alcool e droga nella villa di un marchese, dove erano presenti persone importanti tra cui Piero Piccioni, figlio del ministro degli esteri Attilio. Il padre è costretto a dimettersi. Nel ‘56 si tiene a Venezia il processo. Tutti gli indiziati sono assolti e il delitto rimarrà impunito e avvolto nel mistero.

La scuola

La scuola dell’obbligo arriva fino a 11 anni. Al termine delle elementari si deve scegliere il futuro: chi si iscrive alla scuola media può poi proseguire gli studi, mentre chi va alle scuole di avviamento professionale non potrà continuarli.

Gli alunni delle elementari indossano un grembiule nero con il colletto bianco e in alcune scuole, un fiocco colorato al collo. Si scrive con il pennino intinto nell’inchiostro. I banchi hanno il buco per il calamaio, che viene riempito d’inchiostro dal bidello.

Alle medie si usa la penna stilografica che in genere viene regalata alla prima comunione.

Poi arriva la penna biro, la Bic, ma viene osteggiata dalle maestre perché impedisce la bella scrittura. Il libro alle elementari si chiama abbecedario o sillabario, poi sussidiario. I quaderni sono due: uno a righe per l’italiano e uno a quadretti per l’aritmetica.

La scuola è autoritaria. Gli insegnanti spesso applicano le punizioni corporali. Gli analfabeti nel ‘50 sono ancora il 13% della popolazione.

Ladislao Biro

Ladislao Biro, ungherese, inventore

della penna a sfera…

…cedette i diritti di utilizzo al

barone francese Marcel Bich (a destra)

biro_h11
Scolari
Anni ’50: alunni … col fiocco
Moda-anni-'50--completi-bon-ton-in-tweed

Moda anni ’50: completi bon ton in tweed

La moda

Per amore o per forza la gente risparmia con accanimento. Il vestito viene confezionato in casa o fatto dal sarto. Gli abiti vengono riciclati e passano dai genitori ai figli. I ragazzi portano i pantaloni corti fino a 15-16 anni. Gli uomini d’estate portano la canottiera. Gli elegantoni vestono inglese con i vestiti e scarpe acquistasti nei negozi Old England.

Le donne chic vestono francese. In particolare è Christian Dior che detta le regole; gonne ampie con vita stretta (il vitino di vespa) e altezza della gonna sotto al ginocchio, cappello e guanti sia d’inverno che d’estate, capelli ricci, bocca a forma di cuore rosso vivo. Nel ‘51 il marchese Giovanni Battista Giorgini organizza nella sua residenza di Firenze una sfilata di alta moda per i compratori americani ottenendo un grande successo e così la moda italiana si afferma sulla scena internazionale grazie ad alcuni sarti geniali: Emilio Schubert, le sorelle Fontana, Emilio Pucci.

La radio e il festival di Sanremo

Nei primi anni ‘50 come mezzo di svago casalingo, c’è solo la radio, che è ancora un lusso che non tutti possono permettersi.

La radio ha tante sedi di trasmissione come Milano, Roma, Torino, Napoli per cui bisogna sintonizzarsi sulla stazione prescelta. Trasmissioni di successo sono: “Il microfono è vostro” di Nunzio Filogamo; “Rosso e nero” di Corrado Mantoni; le macchiette di Alberto Sordi (Mario Pio); “I concerti Martini e Rossi” di musica sinfonica e lirica.

Nel Gennaio del ‘51 la RAI organizza e trasmette il 1° Festival di Sanremo. Cantano Nilla Pizzi, Achille Togliani e il duo Fasano, presenta Nunzio Filogamo, dirige l’orchestra Cinico Angelini. Vince “Grazie dei fiori” cantata da Nilla Pizzi che si ripete l’anno dopo con “Vola colomba”. Il festival determinerà il successo delle canzoni e dei cantanti, specie dopo il ‘54 con la trasmissione in TV. Le canzoni hanno testi stucchevoli, spesso lamentosi, ma sono belle dal punto di vista melodico (Viale d’autunno, L’edera, Casetta in Canada, Tutte le mamme, Buongiorno Tristezza, Aveva un bavero, Canzone da due soldi). I cantanti di grande successo sono, oltre alla Pizzi, Claudio Villa, Carla Boni, Gino Latilla, Flo Sandon’s, Giorgio Consolini, Achille Togliani e Luciano Tajoli.

la-prima-radio-mobile

La prima radio mobile

radio anni '50AApparecchio radio anni ‘50
Nunzio-Filogamo
Nunzio Filogamo, presentatore
del 1° Festival di Sanremo (1951)
nilla_pizzi_angelini
1° Festival di Sanremo. Vince ‘Grazie dei fiori’,
canta Nilla Pizzi, dirige il M° Cinico Angelini

I dischi e il ballo

La gente vuole divertirsi. Si diffondono le sale da ballo, i dancing dove furoreggiano i ritmi sudamericani: beguine, samba, rumba e mambo.

L’arrivo dei dischi a 45 giri e dei giradischi portatili determina la diffusione delle feste nelle case.

Una stanza, un garage o una terrazza vengono trasformati in sala da ballo. Pasticcini e aranciate sono assicurati mediante una colletta fra i ragazzi, mentre per le ragazze sono gratis.

sala-da-ballo I più invitati sono gli amici che portano sorelle e cugine, ma in genere i ragazzi sono sempre più delle ragazze.

Il massimo della trasgressione è ballare guancia a guancia, al ritmo dei lenti da mattonella, magari a luci spente, se i genitori si distraggono.

Una-formazione-orchestrale-del-'53

 

mambo-girl-yi-wuen-1957_0

Mambo in un night club nel ‘57

I secondi anni ‘50

Il miracolo economico

Nella seconda parte degli anni ‘50 cambia il vento che spazza via l’odore della miseria, la polvere delle macerie, il tanfo dei gabinetti in comune, il sudore delle ascelle. Arriva il profumo della crema da barba, del dentifricio, dell’arrosto alla domenica, del pane bianco fragrante, del cuoio delle scarpe nuove. Arriva il profumo dei soldi.

Piano piano la situazione economica migliora. I prodotti italiani, grazie alla genialità, creatività e audacia degli industriali e al basso costo della manodopera, sono sempre più richiesti all’estero e invadono il mondo. Si crea un circolo virtuoso: l’aumento della produzione produce un aumento dei profitti, con conseguente aumento dei salari e dell’occupazione, che insieme alla stabilità dei prezzi portano all’aumento dei consumi, che determinano un aumento della produzione. Tutto questo porta al miracolo economico della fine anni ‘50, proseguito negli anni ‘60.

Da paese prevalentemente agricolo, l’Italia diventa uno dei paesi più industrializzati del mondo. il PIL cresce del 6,3% l’anno. La produzione industriale raddoppia. L’export aumenta a ritmi del 14%. La disoccupazione che nel ‘50 è del 20% nel ‘60 è del 3%, un livello che può essere considerato di piena occupazione. Arriva il boom della motorizzazione: aumentano in maniera vertiginosa la vendita di scooter, moto e soprattutto automobili. La Fiat mette sul mercato le prime utilitarie a prezzi contenuti, la 600 nel ‘55 e la 500 nel ‘57, diventando una delle principali fabbriche di auto in Europa.

sputnik 2 con Laika lettera 22

Olivetti Lettera 22

La mitica 600 Fiat

Le aziende italiane invadono i mercati: l’Olivetti produce macchine da scrivere (la mitica Lettera 22) e calcolatrici meccaniche; Giovanni Borghi le lavatrici e frigoriferi Ignis e i televisori Emerson; Enzo Fumagalli gli elettrodomestici Candy; Lino Zanussi i frigoriferi Rex; Ferdinando Zoppas elettrodomestici; la Geloso TV e registratori portatili; Angelo Motta inventa il “Mottarello”, il gelato da passeggio e vende milioni di panettoni e le caramelle Life Savers, le caramelle con il buco; Alemagna gli contende il mercato del panettoni e vende le “Charms”.

frigo-ignis

Frigo Ignis anni ‘50

Tv Geloso del 1954

TV Geloso del 1954 Lavatrice Candy

Lavatrice Candy anni ‘50

Charms Mottarello Life Savers

Nelle case avviene una rivoluzione. Arrivano gli elettrodomestici: il forno elettrico, il frigorifero chiamato frigidaire che sloggia la ghiacciaia, la lavatrice, l’aspirapolvere, la lucidatrice e il rasoio elettrico. Tutto viene acquistato a rate, con le cambiali.

Anche l’alimentazione cambia. Il menù si allunga e si arricchisce; arriva sulle tavole la carne, poi i biscotti Pavesini e il formaggino Mio, l’acqua con le bollicine grazie alle bustine di Idrolitina, l’invenzione del cavalier Gazzoni. Al bar si beve l’acqua gassata nella bottiglia di Seltz. Le bibite di moda sono la gazzosa e il Chinotto, ma sta arrivando la Coca-Cola. Arriva anche un piatto esotico dal sud: la pizza.

formaggino mio idrolitina recoaro

Il 27 novembre 1957 apre a Milano l’Esselunga, il primo supermercato italiano sul modello di quelli americani, definiti da un giornalista “scintillanti drogherie”.

Nel ‘58 Fanfani inaugura il primo tratto dell’“Autostrada del sole” da Milano a Parma che arriva poi a Firenze nel ‘60.

Esselunga_viale_zara Autosole

Corteo inaugurale dell’Autosole

Il 1° supermercato

E poi crolla un baluardo della società tradizionale: la legge Merlin fa chiudere le case chiuse e fa uscire le prostitute, con l’illusione che il fenomeno della prostituzione si riduca, invece si trasferisce sulle strade, senza alcun controllo sanitario, diventando un lucroso affare per la malavita.La Senatrice Merlin promotrice della Legge Senatrice-Merlin

Sempre nel ‘58 Fanfani avvia una grande riforma dell’istruzione: la scuola dell’obbligo è prolungata a 14 anni con l’istituzione della scuola media unificata, vengono assunti 70.000 insegnanti e costruite migliaia di aule. Purtroppo la scolarità è bassa, specie nel sud, dove i bambini vanno a lavorare molto presto. Si calcola che l’85% dei bambini non va a scuola o l’abbandona dopo i primi anni delle elementari.

Nel ‘59 il Financial Times attribuisce l’Oscar alla Lira come migliore valuta mondiale. Le nostre riserve auree e monetarie sono arrivate a 3 miliardi di dollari.

Il boom economico ha anche un lato oscuro: il cosiddetto “dualismo produttivo”. Alcuni settori quali la chimica, meccanica, metallurgia, il tessile, hanno un grande sviluppo e danno un grosso impulso all’economia. Invece non si sviluppano di pari passo settori come la scuola e l’Università, la sanità, le ferrovie. Così le infrastrutture rimangono arretrate; al dinamismo delle imprese corrisponde l’inefficienza della pubblica amministrazione.

valigie-di-cartone Un altro effetto eclatante del boom economico è la grande migrazione interna verso il triangolo industriale Milano, Torino e Genova. Dal ‘51 al ’60, 9 milioni di italiani, in gran parte meridionali, migrano al Nord Italia.

I movimenti migratori cambiano il panorama italiano: le zone di montagna e le campagne si spopolano, le città crescono in maniera disordinata e incontrollata.

L’arrivo di una gran massa di emigrati permette alle industrie di offrire salari bassi, rendendo così le merci estremamente competitive.

L’invasione dei meridionali nelle città del Nord crea enormi problemi d’integrazione. Nasce una nuova parola, “terrone”.

Lo squilibrio fra Nord e Sud peggiora. Con il “miracolo economico” si amplia maggiormente la differenza di sviluppo delle due zone.

Il tempo libero

I bar sono i locali di ritrovo degli uomini che giocano a carte e a biliardo. Le donne stanno casa. Poi, con la comparsa dei flipper e dei juke-box, sono invasi anche dalle ragazze.

La scoperta e la conquista del tempo libero e la consapevolezza del diritto di averlo e usarlo, sono una delle più profonde trasformazioni del costume italiano di quel periodo. Una delle spinte fondamentali ad abbandonare le campagne e il lavoro agricolo da parte dei giovani, sarà l’impossibilità di dividere nei campi e nelle stalle il tempo del lavoro dal tempo del riposo e del divertimento. famiglia al mare


Famiglia al completo al mare

Con il benessere inizia il rito delle vacanze di massa. Prima in scooter, poi in auto gli italiani vanno in vacanza. Quando le industrie chiudono nel mese di agosto, avviene la grande transumanza. Il venerdì notte o il sabato mattina all’alba si carica la macchina con valige, fiaschi di vino, la pummarola, le marmellate della nonna, il salvagente e tutta la famiglia che si stipa nella 500, parte per il mare. Inizia il boom della riviera adriatica.

flipper-anni-50-latta-e-plastica

Flipper anni ’50 in latta e plastica

Juke-anni-50,-mod

Juke box anni ‘50, mod. J120,

della danese Jensen

Si moltiplicano le pensioni a 1300 £ al giorno tutto compreso. Il bagno è in comune al piano, il menù prevede il brodino serale con il piatto freddo: due fette di mortadella o alcune fette di formaggio, ma il mese di ferie è sacro.

L’Italia viene invasa dalle turiste straniere e i ragazzi italiani si trasformano in “latin lover” che conquistano il loro cuore. Per il loro gesticolare, la loro insistenza, vengono anche chiamati “pappagalli”.

 

La moda

Verso la fine degli anni ‘50 il look femminile cambia: l’orlo delle gonne arriva al ginocchio, la vita è larga, i capelli sono lisci e corti e possono stare senza cappello. Poi arriva la gonna a palloncino che scopre le ginocchia. I benpensanti affermano: è una offesa alla natura, dove andremo a finire!

La pubblicità diventa il mezzo per imporre stili e modelli di vita dei paesi ricchi.

gonna-anni-50

Si afferma l’immagine di donna brillante e seducente, votata alla bellezza e femminilità, lontana dallo stereotipo di sposa e madre.

lebole Si passa dall’acquisto necessario a quello voluttuario; dal-l’abbigliamento multiuso al capo scelto per occasioni diverse. Si va dal parrucchiere per fare la permanente e farsi tingere i cappelli, anche se non si deve dire in giro. Per gli uomini arrivano gli abiti confezionati, “l’uomo in Lebole”.

Il ruolo della donna

L’entrata nel mondo del lavoro delle donne spesso trova ostacoli nella famiglia o nel marito che ritengono disdicevole che una donna stia fuori tutto il giorno e chissà con chi. Ma poi la necessità di uno stipendio in più fa passare in secondo piano i pregiudizi. Anche perché le occasioni di lavoro non mancano. Le donne sono richieste nel settore tessile, come commesse e impiegate. Però alcune professioni, come il magistrato, sono precluse. Allora con l’entrata delle donne nel mondo del lavoro, muta il rapporto uomo-donna: le donne diventano più libere, meno controllate dalla gerarchia familiare. Per i giovani diminuiscono le costrizioni e si allargano gli spazi di libertà. Sulle abitudini sessuali si registra una profonda spaccatura tra il Nord, dove le ragazze sono più libere, e il Sud, ancora legatissimo alla morale tradizionale.

La TV

Nel ‘54 avviene un evento che cambierà la vita degli italiani: la Televisione inizia le trasmissioni in bianco e nero con un unico canale. All’inizio il successo è scarso, i televisori venduti sono 150.000; costano 200-300.000 £ e pochi se li possono permettere.

Lascia Poi nel ‘55 inizia “Lascia o raddoppia” condotta da Mike Bongiorno con la valletta Edy Campagnoli e arriva il boom della televisione. Il gioco appassiona gli italiani che la sera del giovedì affollano i bar o le case degli amici fortunati possessori di televisori.

Mike Bongiorno, Edy Campagnoli e

Totò durante una puntata

I cinema, per non chiudere, tra un film e l’altro accendono il televisore. Nel ‘57 alle 20,45 inizia “Carosello”, scenette di 2 minuti che alla fine trasmettono la pubblicità di un prodotto, la réclame. Per i bambini diventa normale la regola “a letto dopo Carosello”.

Uno dei mitici Caroselli della Ferrero …

“… e che?! C’ho scritto Jo Condor?”

untitled
Musichiere

Mario Riva con le ‘vallette’

Lorella De Luca e Alessandra Panaro

Altri programmi di successo sono “Il Musichiere” condotto da Mario Riva; “L’amico degli animali” condotto da Angelo Lombardi con il fido Andalù; “Viaggio in Italia” di Mario Soldati, che fa conoscere le specialità delle cucine regionali; “Non è mai troppo tardi” del maestro Alberto Manzi, che insegna a leggere e scrivere.

Pare che, grazie a queste lezioni a distanza, quasi un milione e mezzo di persone sia riuscito a conseguire la licenza elementare. Poi “Un, due e tre”, programma di satira con Raimondo Vianello e Ugo Tognazzi e “Canzonissima”, gara musicale abbinata alla lotteria di Capodanno presentata da Paolo Panelli, Delia Scala e Nino Manfredi.

La TV fa poi conoscere i classici della letteratura internazionale con la produzione di sceneggiati a puntate, seguiti con passione da milioni di italiani.

Chi fa debiti, chi firma cambiali: non si può fare a meno del televisore, bisogna comprarlo. Nel ‘58 gli abbonati alla TV sono già 1 milione. La TV contribuisce a diffondere la lingua italiana e a formare l’unità nazionale.

Jane-Eyre


Ilaria Occhini e Raf Vallone

nello sceneggiato tv “Jane Eyre” del 1957

La TV è sottoposta ad una rigida censura che veglia sul comune senso del pudore e impedisce anche un minimo accenno di satira politica o di critica alle istituzioni. Così le ballerine portano le calze nere e i mutandoni.

I giovani e la nuova musica

Giovani, una componente della società che fino alla prima metà degli anni ‘50 non esisteva. La condizione di “essere giovani” esprimeva un semplice dato anagrafico. I giovani erano a carico della famiglia e, in linea di massima, ne seguivano la tradizione, praticamente immobilizzati nella classe sociale a cui appartenevano. I ragazzi passavano dall‘infanzia al mondo adulto con l’ingresso al lavoro, le ragazze dai genitori al marito.

È alla metà di questo decennio che i giovani adottano una loro moda (i capelli a banana, i jeans, il giubbotto, la T shirt, le scarpe di gomma) e si appropriano di alcuni oggetti (lo scooter, il juke-box, il flipper) dal forte valore simbolico. Così nascono comportamenti e stili di vita profondamente diversi da quelli dei loro genitori.

James-Dean

James Dean

Marlon ERlvis

Elvis Presley

Marlon Brando

Questa rivoluzione arriva dall’America con una nuova musica, il rock and roll. Il re di questa musica è Elvis Presley. La sua voce si diffonde dai juke-box e diviene un mito per milioni di giovani italiani. Altri interpreti di r ’n r sono Bill Haley e Little Richard. I film di Marlon Brando e James Dean diffondono poi il modello dei “giovani ribelli”, in contrapposizione con il mondo degli adulti.

BillHaley&His Comets

Bill Haley & His Comets

Little-Richards

Little Richard

A nulla servono i duri rimproveri dei genitori e la decisione di alcuni presidi che nel 1958 vietano i jeans a scuola. Così, mentre in passato il vestito era il simbolo più significativo delle differenze fra classi sociali, ora segnala lo stacco generazionale tra adulti e giovani, tra genitori e figli. I primi contestano l’uso dei jeans perché troppo “americani” e trasandati; i secondi li indossano proprio perché sono il simbolo della ribellione nei confronti della “società dei padri”.

Anka Platters

Arrivano anche altri nuovi balli: il cha cha cha, il bajon e il twist. La Chiesa condanna questi balli. I parroci tuonano: ”Sono sconvenienti perché, in quelle giravolte, si alzano le gonne e tutti possono vedere quello che c’è sotto”.

Intanto Paul Anka urla “Ohhh… Diana!” e un gruppo di neri, i Platters, singhiozzano “Only you”.

Nel ‘58 anche nella musica italiana avviene una rivoluzione. Domenico Modugno canta a Sanremo “Nel blu dipinto di blu” e Tony Dallara urla “Come prima” con singhiozzo e brillantina.

modugno Dallara Mina
Celentano Peppino Carosone

Inizia l’era degli “urlatori” e il mondo della musica viene travolto da nuovi cantanti, giovani e moderni che venderanno milioni di dischi: Mina, Celentano, Little Tony, Joe Sentieri, Betty Curtis. Gli “urlatori” rompono con la tradizione melodica di casa nostra e danno voce al desiderio degli adolescenti di rivendicare la loro diversità dagli adulti.

Anche Fred Buscaglione spopola tra i giovani con canzoni spiritose e ritmate creando un personaggio ispirato ai gangster americani. Morirà a soli 40 anni in un incidente d’auto a bordo della sua Thunderbird rosa.

Altri musicisti di successo sono Renato Carosone e Peppino di Capri che hanno saputo rinnovare la canzone napoletana mescolandola con lo swing e il rock.

Il cinema

Gli anni ‘50 sono un periodo d’oro per il cinema. I film neorealistici italiani tristi ed impegnati della fine anni ‘40, osannati dalla critica, hanno scarso successo di pubblico. Gli italiani vogliono divertirsi e sognare. Si impone il cinema d’evasione, di svago, che viene da Hollywood.

Le sale cinematografiche in Italia si diffondono anche nei paesi più sperduti e tutti vanno al cinema, spesso rivedono il film almeno due volte. Le sale cinematografiche sono sempre affollate, il film si vede anche in piedi, in mezzo alla nebbia del fumo di sigarette. Ogni giorno vengono venduti più di un milione di biglietti. I cinema nascono come funghi: nel 1955, escludendo le numerose sale parrocchiali, vi è un posto-cinema ogni 9 abitanti; in Inghilterra e negli Usa, il rapporto è rispettivamente di 1 a 12 e di 1 a 16. In particolare, i giovani costituiscono la fascia di popolazione che frequenta i cinematografi più assiduamente: secondo un sondaggio del 1953, il 68% dei ragazzi di età compresa tra i 20 e i 29 anni va al cinema più volte la settimana, contro una percentuale del 48% dei quarantenni. In questi anni il cinematografo costituisce uno dei principali spazi di socializzazione per le nuove generazioni e per i due sessi: andare al cinema, sia in città che nei piccoli centri della provincia e del Meridione, è un rito e una pratica sociale, per cui vi si va non solo e non tanto per vedere i film, ma per condividere un’esperienza che favorisce il contatto con gli amici, con i fidanzati. È anche per questo che la buia sala cinematografica assume un carattere negativo agli occhi dei genitori, perché in qualche modo potrebbe favorire incontri peccaminosi. Al cinema si va la domenica pomeriggio con tutta la famiglia, con l’abito buono. I fidanzati ci vanno il sabato, scelgono gli ultimi posti della galleria e tentano l’approccio amoroso. I bambini entrano gratis se piccoli o pagano metà biglietto. Il biglietto costa 50-100 £. Nelle grandi città i cinema si dividono per classi: prima, seconda e terza visione. Quelli di prima sono in centro, proiettano le novità e hanno le poltroncine di velluto rosso. In quelli di terza visione, chiamati “pidocchini”, le sedie sono di legno, spesso la pellicola si rompe, si accendono le luci e il pubblico urla e fischia. Ma quando gli indiani stanno per sopraffare i soldati e si sente la tromba che suona la carica della cavalleria, avviene una esplosione di battimani.

D’estate si va al cinema all’aperto. Nel ‘53 i cinema incassano 93 miliardi.

Alla fine degli anni ‘50 Cinecittà diventa l’Hollywood sul Tevere. I produttori americani trovano a Roma tecnici competenti, sceneggiatori bravi e attori preparati, soprattutto costi di lavorazione bassi per cui registi ed attori americani si trasferiscono in massa. Inizia la “dolce vita” di via Veneto descritta poi da Fellini. Nascono i paparazzi, fotografi abilissimi a cogliere gli attimi belli, ma spesso imbarazzanti della vita delle star di Hollywood, spesso ubriache. Nei bar di via Veneto si possono incontrare Gary Cooper, Errol Flynn, Clark Gable, Tyrone Power, Rita Hayworth, Elizabeth Taylor e tanti altri. “Guerra e Pace” viene girato a Valenza Po e per le scene di battaglia vengono ingaggiati 3000 soldati di leva.

 

 

Il cinema di Hollywood

È il periodo d’oro dei film western (Tamburi lontani; Mezzogiorno di fuoco; Il cavaliere della valle solitaria; Sentieri selvaggi; Quel treno per Yuma; Sfida all’OK Corral), di grandi registi come Billy Wilder (Viale del tramonto; Vacanze romane; Sabrina), del maestro del brivido Alfred Hitchcock (La finestra sul cortile; L’uomo che sapeva troppo; La donna che visse due volte; Intrigo internazionale; Psyco), di Marylin Monroe, l’attrice più conturbante e sexy, fragile e sfortunata (Quando la moglie è in vacanza; A qualcuno piace caldo; Gli uomini preferiscono le bionde; Niagara; La magnifica preda) e dei film storici (Quo vadis; Cleopatra; Ivanhoe; Ben Hur).

Yuma Mezogiorno noiagara

Gli attori famosi sono Gary Cooper, John Wayne, Humphrey Bogart, Alan Ladd, Cary Grant, James Stewart, Gregory Peck, William Holden, Rock Hudson, il duo Jerry Lewis e Dean Martin, Glenn Ford, Henry Fonda, Victor Mature, Robert Mitchum, Anthony Quinn, Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas, Montgomery Cliff, Paul Newman, Richard Burton, Richard Widmark, Spencer Tracy, Stewart Granger, Sterling Hayden, Tony Curtis, Tyrone Power, Jack Lemmon, James Dean, Marlon Brando.

Tra le attrici spopolano Anna Maria Pierangeli, Audrey Hepburn, Ava Gardner, Debra Paget, Deborah Kerr, Doris Day, Eleonor Parker, Elizabeth Taylor, Grace Kelly, Ingrid Bergman, Jane Russell, Jayne Mansfield, Jean Simmons, Joan Fontaine, Katharine Hepburn, Kim Novak, Lana Turner.

Il cinema di altre nazioni

Cinema francese.

Arriva nel ‘56 Brigitte Bardot ingenua e supersexy nel film “E Dio creò la femmina” di Roger Vadim. Altri film francesi: “Vite vendute” di Henri-Georges Clouzot con Yves Montand; “I diabolici” sempre di Clouzot, con Simone Signoret; “Ascensore per il patibolo” di Louis Malle, con Jeanne Moreau.

Alla fine anni ‘50 In Francia nasce la Nouvelle vague con film frizzanti e sequenze rapide che affrontano i temi della realtà, della vita quotidiana nelle strade di città e nelle campagne, la crudeltà dei sentimenti e delle passioni: “I quattrocento colpi” di Francois Truffaut; “Le beau Serge” di Claude Chabrol; “Hiroshima mon amour” di Alain Resnais; “Fino all’ultimo respiro” di Jean-Luc Godard.

Attori e attrici francesi famosi sono Fernandel, Jean Gabin, Jean Claude Brialy, Jean-Louis Trintignant, Yves Montand, Jean Paul Belmondo, Jeanne Moreau, Simone Signoret, Jacqueline Sassard, Juliette Greco.

BB Ponte

Il cinema inglese.

Il ponte sul fiume Kwai” di David Lean con Alec Guinness e William Holden.

Il cinema giapponese.

Arriva in occidente con i capolavori di Akira Kurosawa: “Rashomon” del ’51 e “I Sette samurai” del ‘54; “L’arpa birmana” di Kon Ichikawa.

Il cinema d’autore.

È dominato dallo svedese Ingmar Bergman, che porta nel cinema i drammi e i dilemmi esistenziali e metafisici più universali e complessi: “Sorrisi di una notte d’estate” del ‘55; “Il settimo sigillo” del ‘56; “Il Posto delle fragole” del ‘57.

Il cinema italiano

Anche il cinema italiano ha grande successo grazie a ottimi registi (Vittorio De Sica, Luchino Visconti, Mario Monicelli, Dino Risi, Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini, Mauro Bolognini, Alberto Lattuada, Steno, Carlo Lizzani, Francesco Rosi, Luigi Comencini, Roberto Rossellini) e soprattutto al genere comico, la commedia all’italiana, con mattatore Totò. Attori famosi sono: Alberto Sordi, Vittorio Gassman, Peppino De Filippo, Maurizio Arena, Renato Salvatori, Massimo Girotti, Aldo Fabrizi, Marcello Mastroianni, Gino Cervi, Paolo Stoppa, Franco Interlenghi, Folco Lulli, Ettore Manni, Carlo Croccolo, Walter Chiari. Per le attrici è il periodo delle “maggiorate”: Sophia Loren, Silvana Pampanini, Gina Lollobrigida, Silvana Mangano, Marisa Allasio, Sylva Koscina. Dopo la fame, gli italiani adorano le donne floride e prosperose.

toto Un_americano_a_Roma_-_maccheroni

La parola viene pronunciata per la prima volta da De Sica nel film “Il processo di Frine” con la Lollobrigida. Altre attrici di successo sono Alida Valli, Anna Magnani, Anna Maria Ferrero, Antonella Lualdi, Claudia Cardinale, Cosetta Greco, Dorian Gray, Eleonora Rossi Drago, Franca Marzi, Giovanna Ralli, Giulietta Masina, Lea Padovani, Lucia Bosè, Maria Pia Casilio, Rossana Podestà, Carla Del Poggio, Virna Lisi.

Così si conclude il decennio che ha visto un cambiamento dell’Italia impressionante. Dalla miseria siamo passati al benessere diffuso, da paese agricolo a potenza industriale, dalla musica melodica agli urlatori, dalla giacca e cravatta ai jeans. Alla fine degli anni ‘50 c’è grande fiducia nel futuro; è un periodo di allegria quasi sfrenata e di costumi sempre più disinvolti, ma i problemi socio-economici irrisolti covano sotto la cenere e finiranno per esplodere alla fine degli anni ‘60.

Relazione tenuta il 27 febbraio 2014

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