Raoul Barbieri *

Tra le azioni di marketing intraprese dalle aziende per lo sviluppo ed il consolidamento del proprio mercato, si privilegiano la pubblicità, le promozioni e tutte le azioni che rafforzano l’immagine e la notorietà (ad esempio le sponsorizzazioni e le relazioni esterne) mentre un ruolo secondario – a torto – viene riservato alla partecipazione a manifestazioni fieristiche.

La manifestazione fieristica viene vista come stereotipo di retroguardia, legata ad una tradizione spesso ingombrante che la accomuna a feste paesane o qualcosa di simile, vuoi anche per il frequente ricorso ad allestimenti fai-da-te e l’atteggiamento rivolto solo alla vendita piuttosto che alla considerazione che la fiera è un momento di conoscenza e scambio di informazioni ed impressioni.

La presenza ad una manifestazione fieristica permette invece di trasmettere – e rafforzare – gli aspetti di notorietà ed immagine tipiche delle più classiche leve di marketing.

Si vuole dimostrare che al di là degli aspetti squisitamente commerciali, che pure sono molto importanti, la partecipazione ad una fiera permette di esprimere valori di marketing e di comunicazione che non devono essere trascurati.

Occorre innanzitutto effettuare una distinzione tra fiere per pubblico e fiere per operatori.

Sono definite ‘fiere per il pubblico’ le manifestazioni nelle quali l’espo-sitore (tipicamente un rivenditore) si propone all’utilizzatore finale dei suoi prodotti.

Sono tali le manifestazioni campionarie (tipiche degli anni ’60 e ’70), le manifestazioni sui settori ad alta reclamizzazione (alimentari, mobili, libri) o culturali (antiquariato, arte).

Sono definite ‘fiere per operatori’ (business to business) quelle manifestazioni nelle quali l’espositore (in genere un produttore) si propone al rivenditore dei suoi prodotti o all’u-tilizzatore quando questi non è un privato.

Ogni anno in Italia 32 milioni di persone (potenziali clienti) visitano 700 manifestazioni dove 180.000 espositori sono pronti a contenderseli. Il 70% dei visitatori influenza le scelte della propria organizzazione e il 25% sono decisori o dirigenti.

Partecipazione in fiera

Valenze commerciali

Valutazione dello “stato dell’arte” del mercato di appartenenza che si ottiene analizzando l’intero panorama espositivo della fiera.

Conquista di nuovi mercati.

La partecipazione in Fiera è il miglior modo per effettuare un’azione verso paesi nuovi, per valutarne l’impatto commerciale e concorrenziale e la risposta del potenziale cliente. Ciò spiega perché quando devono conquistare mercati nuovi, soprattutto all’estero, le aziende spesso iniziano con una partecipazione a fiere del settore, come per “sondare” il mercato di sbocco.
Valenze di marketing

Autoselezione del target

Reclamizzare una motocicletta in televisione significa mandare un messaggio a milioni di persone (bambini, anziani, senza patente, non appassionati) anche non interessati. In una fiera dedicata ai motori, è chiaro che le persone che giungono allo stand sono senza dubbio interessate al nostro settore.

La partecipazione ad una fiera minimizza il costo contatto, vale a dire quanto la misura di un investimento confrontata con gli interlocutori interessati.

Relazioni ad personam

Ossia la presenza delle merci nella loro fisicità (cosa impossibile in qualsiasi altra forma di comunicazione) e la possibilità di interloquire con personale addestrato.

Per prodotti ad elevata complessità tecnologica o dove è importante intraprendere un rapporto “di fiducia“ con il potenziale cliente, la partecipazione alla fiera consente di ovviare alla reticenza dell’acquiren-te.

Trasparenza dei prodotti

L’abbondanza di comunicazione verso il cliente crea in quest’ultimo percezioni poco chiare sui prodotti presentati.

La presenza del prodotto ad una fiera supera queste difficoltà, elimina la reticenza del consumatore e l’unidirezionalità tipica della comunicazione di massa (azienda > consumatore).

Questa è un’esigenza fortemente sentita nel mercato di oggi.

Evidenziazione cultura aziendale

Uno stand, oltre ad esporre prodotti, eroga segnali e sensazioni. Essi riflettono la cultura aziendale, la tradizione, la storia, l’immagine, il processo aziendale dell’impresa che espone.

Questi segnali si percepiscono solo negli stand fieristici: scompaiono quando i prodotti sono esposti nei punti vendita (perché non c’è più l’azienda).

In questo senso la partecipazione ad una manifestazione fieristica può trasmettere più cultura di una velleitaria sponsorizzazione di un evento.

Interattività
Fare comunicazione e marketing attraverso la partecipazione a manifestazioni fieristiche consente di avere un ritorno (feed-back) sull’investimento effettuato che non è possibile con altre forme di comunicazione.

La fiera è elemento coagulante di tutto il marketing mix

(Prodotto-Prezzo-Pubblicità-Distribuzione) 
Gli esperti di comunicazione definiscono “orchestrazione” la capacità di far coesistere la comunicazione di impresa e la comunicazione di prodotto. Ciò avviene esclusivamente nella ribalta fieristica.


L’indotto generato dalle attività di
Arezzo Fiere e Congressi

Sono stati oltre 1.850 espositori e 92.000 visitatori quelli registrati nel 2013 da Arezzo Fiere e Congressi nelle diverse tipologie di manifestazioni organizzate ed ospitate, che differiscono per durata, stile partecipativo e provenienza dei protagonisti e non consentono di effettuare una visione organica dei comportamenti di spesa degli stessi.

Tuttavia, con qualche approssimazione, è possibile classificare le diverse tipologie di spesa attivate dal sistema fieristico, le aree in cui esse si trovano e chi usufruisce di queste spese: il valore dell’indotto generato dalla spesa degli espositori e dei visitatori è ovviamente determinato in larga misura dal luogo di provenienza degli espositori e dei visitatori.

Per calcolare il valore dell’indotto generato dalla spesa dei protagonisti dell’attività fieristica occorre fare riferimento ad un modello assai consolidato messo a punto dalla Prof.ssa Golfetto, docente esperta di fiere dell’Università Bocconi di Milano.

L’indicatore tradizionalmente considerato è il moltiplicatore fieristico, che viene calcolato rapportando l’in-dotto diretto totale alle spese d’affitto per l’area espositiva.

Per una fiera simile per dimensioni e fatturato a quella di Arezzo questo valore, calcolato alcuni anni fa, era pari a 11 mentre per enti fieristici con caratteristiche di specializzazione, internazionalizzazione e volume d’affari superiore a quello aretino (come Bologna e Milano) il valore era superiore.

Si può quindi presumere che anche per Arezzo ogni euro di affitto per l’area espositiva ci siano altri 11 euro spesi e che questi quindi contribuiscano a formare l’indotto della fiera nella città.

In pratica se un’azienda spende 1000 euro per l’acquisto dell’area espositiva, il modello stima in 11.000 euro (1000 x 11) la spesa complessiva dell’espositore.

Sulla base del modello suesposto, considerando 11 il valore del moltiplicatore e 4 milioni il valore della spesa degli espositori per l’acquisto dello spazio, si può ritenere che il valore dell’indotto generato dalle attività di Arezzo Fiere e Congressi sia circa di 44 milioni di euro, valore che, dalle nostre analisi, ricade quasi completamente sulla città e sulla provincia.

 

Relazione tenuta il 23 gennaio 2014

*

C:\Users\Paolo\Desktop\2014-01-23-23.05.15.jpg Il Dr. Barbieri (a sin.), ex Direttore di ‘Arezzo Fiere e Congressi’, con il Presidente Dario Deni.
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